Longevity of CD/DVD Media
The longevity or shelf life of optical media refers to the time frame in which disc data can still be accessed without encountering loss or damage. Concrete lifespan numbers for discs are difficult to establish due to fluctuating environmental and physical factors that are open to individual interpretation.
In real-world applications, the elements that affect a disc's shelf life include: the manufacturer's materials and quality of assembly, user handling and storage, compatible hardware and other disc equipment as well as exposure to excess heat, light or humidity.
Discs with gold layers have outperformed standard discs in numerous scientific tests.
Phase-changing technology for formats like CD-RW, DVD-RW and BD-RE will have a limited shelf life in the number of transitions it can endure between crystalline and amorphous (reading, writing, re-writing) states. The quality of dye employed in the recording layers of the R format impacts the disc's lifespan and depending on external variables, will break down at unique rates.
For a competitive market edge, some optical media manufacturers will use Accelerated Life Testing (ALTs) to demonstrate the durability of their product. ALTs can estimate a disc's lifespan through a series of stress tests that can rapidly age the media and then calculate a real-time shelf life quotient. Stresses for this test include humidity, temperature and UV rays.
The discrepancies in these tests lie in the fact that not every stress factor is utilized and what is deemed the end of life indicator can be subjective. Some Accelerated Life Tests determine these indicators to be a particular measurement of jitters while others weigh the Parity Inner Errors or the Block Error Rates. These error rates convey the number of errors requiring correction when reading or writing a disc.
Consequently, the lifespan of CDs, DVDs and Blu-rays contain a range of testing measurements and can be conservatively estimated, with some compact discs tending to outlast DVD formats:
- Unrecorded CD-R and CD-RW: 5-10 years
- Recorded CD-R: 50-200 years
- Recorded CD-RW: 20-100 years
- Recorded DVD-R: 30-100 years
- Recorded DVD-RW: up to 30 years
- Recorded BD-R and BD-RE: 30-200 years
Since Blu-ray is a newer technology, it should be noted that further testing and calculations are required to more accurately narrow a lifespan.
- CD/DVD Degradation
- Gold Discs Explained
- Lifetime of Kodak CD Media
- Lifetime of TDK CD Media
- Media Longevity
- Recordable Media Quality and Longevity
- Special Report: Media Longevity